Short notes on SOAP messaging

SOAP is the fundamental messaging framework for web services. It is the first piece of thing you should learn and understand when starting to deal with web services. I think most of the readers of this blog possess a good understanding of the concepts and techniques of SOAP. However, this blog is not restricted to folks who are working with SOA and web services. QA testers and non-web service specific developers are also a part of target audience.
I thought to describe a set of commonly used terms in SOA and web services in fairly simple and non-technical user oriented manner so that most novice users get benefit from it.

SOAP defines a standard message format based on XML. It provides a mechanism to bind messages to different network protocols. It also defines a processing model to serialize/de-serialize messages.

Structure of a soap message


SOAP message consists of 3 basic elements.
Soap Envelope



SOAP envelope should have one mandatory body element which contains the message payload.
One soap message can have zero or more header elements. The SOAP header is an extension that provides a way for information to be passed within a SOAP message that is not
part of the business message payload. Soap headers include information that controls QOS (quality of service) such as Security and reliable messaging.

Soap nodes are intended to receive or send soap messages in the message transmission path. If a node transmits a message it is known as a SOAP Sender. If it receives a message, then it is a SOAP Receiver. If a node does both transmitting and receiving of soap messages, then it is called a SOAP Intermediary.

The Soap sender which builds the message initially is said to be initial SOAP sender. The final target of the message is Ultimate Soap receiver. It is expected to process the payload of soap message.

There is an important attribute you may have seen in soap header elements. it is the "mustUnderstand" attribute. If this attribute is set to true, the target node should process the SOAP header block. If this attribute is false or not available, then target SOAP node can ignore processing the block.

SOAP fault is a model to handle exceptions when an error occurs in processing a soap message.
Soap fault is included in the body element of soap message.
Soap fault should have a mandatory fault code element. There are five fault codes defined in SOAP 1.1 specification.

VersionMismatch: message does not comply with the SOAP version
Sender: message was incorrectly generated when receiving node processing it
Receiver: Receiving node cannot process the message
MustUnderstand: The targeted node cannot understand the soap header
DataEncodingUnknown: The target node cannot understand the data encoding mechanism of the message

SOAP bindings allow a SOAP message to be transmitted over different transport protocols such as HTTP and SMTP.
In a web service interaction, the request and response SOAP messages can be sent via two different transports.

If you can understand the commonly used terms I explained above, you should be able to follow and explore more with the detailed reading materials published on various places.

Stay tuned. I will post a set of commonly used terms of WSDL soon.


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